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26th Scientific Symposium with International Participation

Project CEEX 20

Sustainable fruit production: from genotype towards environmental protection and human health


3. Measurable objectives

Depending on the nature of the themes approached in the project there are listed below more than one measurable objective. From the fruit genetics view point, the main measurable objective is the basis to improve assortment in apple, pear, plum, sweet cherry and sour cherry for the introduction of high-value genotypes in the new plantations, as recommended by the national policy of fruit production development and by modernizing orchards and adopting European standards. One should: a) choose for each small fruit species investigated here 2 to 4 genotypes as donors of high-quality properties and a higher resistance to biotic and abiotic stress factors, b) perform 4 to 6 cross-breeding combinations for each species, c) obtain 300 to 700 of hybrid seedling plants for each species, d) identification of 10-15 exceptional-quality hybrids resisting to freezing as well as to specific pest and diseases, e) selection of 2 to 4 prospective elites which exceed the actual assortment related to fruit yield and quality, resistance to diseases, pests and low (-14 to -20º C) temperatures and finding their suitability for the fresh fruit and processed fruit market.

From the view point of plant propagation for fruit species and dendrological species, one can be stated that it is about the improvement of technologies for vegetative as well as generative rootstocks, the ornamental species and their promotion, as well as testing in nurseries of new, prospective cultivars and selections, propagation capacity, resistance to pests, grafting compatibility and viral testing.

From the fruit production technologies the irrigation and fertilizer application objectives are to:

1) determine nutrients in soil versus the irrigation and fertilizer application method, 2) determine plant concentration in the main macro-elements and carbo-hydrates content, 3) measure the treatments effects on the tree growth and fruit-setting (sap flow velocity, trunk diameter and its daily contraction, total shoot length, fruit yield and size, etc., 4) reduce irrigation water and pumping energy by up to 20% versus the actual procedures associated with soil fertility conservation and keeping the water table to normal levels, 5) determine the chemical composition of fruit and leaves and the fruit preservation capacity, 6) evaluate the modification strength of the chemical, physical and biological soil properties, e.g. bulk density, macro-porosity, soil resistance to penetration, saturated hydraulic conductivity, humus and macro-element content. From the sunlight utilization view point the objectives are to: 1) determine the fruit content in chlorophyll pigments and macro-elements (pholiar diagnosis), 2) determine photosynthesis in various zones of tree crowns and types, 3) measure photosynthetic solar radiation within various sectors of tree crowns, 4) determine biometrical measurements in trees, 5) evaluate fruit quantity and quality and its distribution in the crown, 6) find the influence of the rootstock-cultivar-pruning system-tree crown shapes-tree grouping type. From the fruit preservation view point, the objectives are to: 1) determine fruit firmness before and during preservation, 2) determine starch hydrolysis, 3) find the degree of fruit color, 4) emphasize freed ethylene, 5) find optimum environmental preservation conditions, 6) find the integrated complex methods of fruit preservation. To evaluate the nutritional fruit value for fruit species and small fruit species by determining their chemical composition, selection of high-quality species and genotypes are being carried out. To do this, it is advisable that fruit utilization for those selections possessing a high amount of active physiological substances be used in such studies as recommended by specialized nutritionists for a healthy food style. It is also useful to identify the contingent residues of harmful substances existing in fruits due to some inadequate crop technologies.